Author(s)Weber, R. T.; Can, Thach V; Walish, Joseph John; Swager, Timothy M; Griffin, Robert Guy
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We present a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study using a ramped-amplitude nuclear orientation via electron spin locking (RA-NOVEL) sequence that utilizes a fast arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to modulate the microwave pulses together with samples doped with narrow-line radicals such as 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA), sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA), and trityl-OX063. Similar to ramped-amplitude cross polarization in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, RA-NOVEL improves the DNP efficiency by a factor of up to 1.6 compared to constant-amplitude NOVEL (CA-NOVEL) but requires a longer mixing time. For example, at τ mix = 8 μs, the DNP efficiency reaches a plateau at a ramp amplitude of ∼20 MHz for both SA-BDPA and trityl-OX063, regardless of the ramp profile (linear vs. tangent). At shorter mixing times (τ mix = 0.8 μs), we found that the tangent ramp is superior to its linear counterpart and in both cases there exists an optimum ramp size and therefore ramp rate. Our results suggest that RA-NOVEL should be used instead of CA-NOVEL as long as the electronic spin latti ce relaxation T 1e is sufficiently long and/or the duty cycle of the microwave amplifier is not exceeded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a time domain DNP experiment that utilizes modulated microwave pulses. Our results also suggest that a precise modulation of the microwave pulses can play an important role in optimizing the efficiency of pulsed DNP experiments and an AWG is an elegant instrumental solution for this purpose.
DepartmentFrancis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry
Journal of Chemical Physics
Can, T. V. et al. “Ramped-Amplitude NOVEL.” The Journal of Chemical Physics 146, 15 (April 2017): 154204 © 2017 Author(s)
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