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dc.contributor.authorHuang, Bevin
dc.contributor.authorClark, Genevieve
dc.contributor.authorNavarro Moratalla, Efren Adolfo
dc.contributor.authorKlein, Dahlia Rivka
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Ran
dc.contributor.authorSeyler, Kyle L.
dc.contributor.authorZhong, Ding
dc.contributor.authorSchmidgall, Emma
dc.contributor.authorMcGuire, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorCobden, David H.
dc.contributor.authorYao, Wang
dc.contributor.authorXiao, Di
dc.contributor.authorJarillo-Herrero, Pablo
dc.contributor.authorXu, Xiaodong
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-30T20:52:28Z
dc.date.available2020-03-30T20:52:28Z
dc.date.issued2017-06
dc.date.submitted2017-01
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836
dc.identifier.issn1476-4687
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/124437
dc.description.abstractSince the discovery of graphene, the family of two-dimensional materials has grown, displaying a broad range of electronic properties. Recent additions include semiconductors with spin-valley coupling, Ising superconductors that can be tuned into a quantum metal, possible Mott insulators with tunable charge-density waves, and topological semimetals with edge transport. However, no two-dimensional crystal with intrinsic magnetism has yet been discovered; such a crystal would be useful in many technologies from sensing to data storage. Theoretically, magnetic order is prohibited in the two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model at finite temperatures by the Mermin-Wagner theorem. Magnetic anisotropy removes this restriction, however, and enables, for instance, the occurrence of two-dimensional Ising ferromagnetism. Here we use magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to demonstrate that monolayer chromium triiodide (CrI 3) is an Ising ferromagnet with out-of-plane spin orientation. Its Curie temperature of 45 kelvin is only slightly lower than that of the bulk crystal, 61 kelvin, which is consistent with a weak interlayer coupling. Moreover, our studies suggest a layer-dependent magnetic phase, highlighting thickness-dependent physical properties typical of van der Waals crystals. Remarkably, bilayer CrI 3 displays suppressed magnetization with a metamagnetic effect, whereas in trilayer CrI 3 the interlayer ferromagnetism observed in the bulk crystal is restored. This work creates opportunities for studying magnetism by harnessing the unusual features of atomically thin materials, such as electrical control for realizing magnetoelectronics, and van der Waals engineering to produce interface phenomena. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNSF (grant DMR-1231319)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipGordon and Betty Moore Foundation EPiQS Initiative (Grant GBMF4541)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (Award Number DESC0001088)en_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/NATURE22391en_US
dc.rightsArticle is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use.en_US
dc.sourcearXiven_US
dc.titleLayer-dependent ferromagnetism in a van der Waals crystal down to the monolayer limiten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationHuang, Bevin, et al. “Layer-Dependent Ferromagnetism in a van Der Waals Crystal down to the Monolayer Limit.” Nature 546 (June 2017): 270–273. doi:10.1038/nature22391. © 2017 Author(s)en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Physicsen_US
dc.relation.journalNatureen_US
dc.eprint.versionOriginal manuscripten_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/NonPeerRevieweden_US
dc.date.updated2019-03-27T13:01:33Z
dspace.orderedauthorsHuang, Bevin; Clark, Genevieve; Navarro-Moratalla, Efrén; Klein, Dahlia R.; Cheng, Ran; Seyler, Kyle L.; Zhong, Ding; Schmidgall, Emma; McGuire, Michael A.; Cobden, David H.; Yao, Wang; Xiao, Di; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Xu, Xiaodongen_US
dspace.embargo.termsNen_US
dspace.date.submission2019-04-04T11:59:00Z
mit.journal.volume546en_US
mit.licensePUBLISHER_POLICYen_US
mit.metadata.statusComplete


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