On the Origin of Tonal Classes in Kinande Noun Stems
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This paper investigates the Proto-Bantu origins of the principal tonal classes in Kinande nonderived mono- and disyllabic nominal stems. The ternary H vs. L. vs. 0 distinction in the final syllable of the current language is traced back to a binary H vs. L contrast in Proto Bantu on the basis of two strata of reconstruction: first, a shallow one based on c. 200 PB cognates shared with the closely related Lacustrine languages Runyankore, Haya, and Jita and second, a deeper one based on c. 100 PB cognates shared with the more distantly related Congolese languages Tembo, Luba, and Lingala. A chronology of tone changes is postulated in which different sequencing of the same changes as well as alternative phonologizations of ambiguous phonetic structures play a key role.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Linguistics and Philosophy
Studies in African Linguistics
Dept. of Linguistics and the African Studies Center, University of California, Los Angeles
Kenstowicz, Michael. "On the Origin of Tonal Classes in Kinande Noun Stems." Studies in African Linguistics 37 2 (2008): 115-51.
Author's final manuscript
Kinande, Proto Bantu, tonal reconstruction, ternary contrast