UNO is hard, even for a single player
Author(s)Demaine, Erik D.; Demaine, Martin L.; Uehara, Ryuhei; Uno, Takeaki; Uno, Yushi
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UNO® is one of the world-wide well-known and popular card games. We investigate UNO from the viewpoint of combinatorial algorithmic game theory by giving some simple and concise mathematical models for it. They include cooperative and uncooperative versions of UNO, for example. As a result of analyzing their computational complexities, we prove that even a single-player version of UNO is NP-complete, while it becomes in P in some restricted cases. We also show that uncooperative two-player’s version is PSPACE-complete.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms
Demaine, Erik D. et al. “UNO is hard, even for a single player.” Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms. Iscia, Italy: Springer-Verlag, 2010. 133-144.
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