Toward the Second Generation of Optogenetic Tools
Author(s)Knopfel, Thomas; Zin, Michael Z.; Levskaya, Anselm; Tian, Lin; Lin, John Y.; Boyden, Edward Stuart; ... Show more Show less
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This mini-symposium aims to provide an integrated perspective on recent developments in optogenetics. Research in this emerging field combines optical methods with targeted expression of genetically encoded, protein-based probes to achieve experimental manipulation and measurement of neural systems with superior temporal and spatial resolution. The essential components of the optogenetic toolbox consist of two kinds of molecular devices: actuators and reporters, which respectively enable light-mediated control or monitoring of molecular processes. The first generation of genetically encoded calcium reporters, fluorescent proteins, and neural activators has already had a great impact on neuroscience. Now, a second generation of voltage reporters, neural silencers, and functionally extended fluorescent proteins hold great promise for continuing this revolution. In this review, we will evaluate and highlight the limitations of presently available optogenic tools and discuss where these technologies and their applications are headed in the future.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Biological Engineering; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Media Laboratory; McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT; Program in Media Arts and Sciences (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
Journal of Neuroscience
Society for Neuroscience
Knopfel, T. et al. “Toward the Second Generation of Optogenetic Tools.” Journal of Neuroscience 30.45 (2010) : 14998-15004.
Final published version