Focused Microwave Thermotherapy for Preoperative Treatment of Invasive Breast Cancer: A Review of Clinical Studies
Author(s)Dooley, William C.; Vargas, Hernan I.; Fenn, Alan J.; Tomaselli, Mary Beth; Harness, Jay K.
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Background: Preoperative focused microwave thermotherapy (FMT) is a promising method for targeted treatment of breast cancer cells. Results of four multi-institutional clinical studies of preoperative FMT for treating invasive carcinomas in the intact breast are reviewed. Methods: Externally applied wide-field adaptive phased-array FMT has been investigated both as a preoperative heat-alone ablation treatment and as a combination treatment with preoperative anthracycline-based chemotherapy for breast tumors ranging in ultrasound-measured size from 0.8 to 7.8 cm. Results: In phase I, eight of ten (80%) patients receiving a single low dose of FMT prior to receiving mastectomy had a partial tumor response quantified by either ultrasound measurements of tumor volume reduction or by pathologic cell kill. In phase II, the FMT thermal dose was increased to establish a threshold dose to induce 100% pathologic tumor cell kill for invasive carcinomas prior to breast-conserving surgery (BCS). In a randomized study for patients with early-stage invasive breast cancer, of those patients receiving preoperative FMT at ablative temperatures, 0 of 34 (0%) patients had positive tumor margins, whereas positive margins occurred in 4 of 41 (9.8%) of patients receiving BCS alone (P = 0.13). In a randomized study for patients with large tumors, based on ultrasound measurements the median tumor volume reduction was 88.4% (n = 14) for patients receiving FMT and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, compared with 58.8% (n = 10) reduction in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy-alone arm (P = 0.048). Conclusions: Wide-field adaptive phased-array FMT can be safely administered in a preoperative setting, and data from randomized studies suggest both a reduction in positive tumor margins as a heat-alone treatment for early-stage breast cancer and a reduction in tumor volume when used in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy for patients with large breast cancer tumors. Larger randomized studies are required to verify these conclusions.
Annals of Surgical Oncology
Springer New York
Dooley, William C. et al. “Focused Microwave Thermotherapy for Preoperative Treatment of Invasive Breast Cancer: A Review of Clinical Studies.” Annals of Surgical Oncology 17.4 (2009) : 1076-1093.
Author's final manuscript