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dc.contributor.authorBoyden, Edward Stuart
dc.date.accessioned2011-09-14T13:50:42Z
dc.date.available2011-09-14T13:50:42Z
dc.date.issued2011-05
dc.identifier.issn1740-4118
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/65828
dc.description.abstractUnderstanding how different kinds of neuron in the brain work together to implement sensations, feelings, thoughts, and movements, and how deficits in specific kinds of neuron result in brain diseases, has long been a priority in basic and clinical neuroscience. “Optogenetic” tools are genetically encoded molecules that, when targeted to specific neurons in the brain, enable their activity to be driven or silenced by light. These molecules are microbial opsins, seven-transmembrane proteins adapted from organisms found throughout the world, which react to light by transporting ions across the lipid membranes of cells in which they are genetically expressed. These tools are enabling the causal assessment of the roles that different sets of neurons play within neural circuits, and are accordingly being used to reveal how different sets of neurons contribute to the emergent computational and behavioral functions of the brain. These tools are also being explored as components of prototype neural control prosthetics capable of correcting neural circuit computations that have gone awry in brain disorders. This review gives an account of the birth of optogenetics and discusses the technology and its applications.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (New Innovator Award (DP2OD002002))en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (EFRI 0835878)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (DMS 0848804)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (DMS 1042134)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant 1R01DA029639)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant 1RC1MH088182)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant 1RC2DE020919)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant 1R01NS067199)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (grant 1R43NS070453)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUnited States. Dept. of Defense (CDMRP PTSD Program)en_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd.en_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.3410/B3-11en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-Non Commercialen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcodeen_US
dc.sourceMIT web domainen_US
dc.titleA history of optogenetics: the development of tools for controlling brain circuits with lighten_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationBoyden, Edward. “A history of optogenetics: the development of tools for controlling brain circuits with light.” F1000 Biology Reports 3, May (2011).en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciencesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Media Laboratoryen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMcGovern Institute for Brain Research at MITen_US
dc.contributor.approverBoyden, Edward Stuart
dc.contributor.mitauthorBoyden, Edward Stuart
dc.relation.journalFaculty of 1000. Biologyen_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dspace.orderedauthorsBoyden, Edwarden
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0419-3351
mit.licensePUBLISHER_CCen_US


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