Force Control with A Muscle-Activated Endoskeleton
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The advantages and challenges of producing and controlling force with a mechanism like the human skeleton driven by actuators like mammalian muscles are considered. Some counter-intuitive subtleties of musculo-skeletal biomechanics are discovered: despite the energetic cost of isometric muscle activation, exerting forces that do no work may reduce metabolic energy consumption; in some circumstances, anatomical antagonist muscles may become functional synergists; and muscle tension acts to make skeletal posture statically unstable. The latter effect can be counteracted by muscle mechanical impedance, which emerges as an essential adjunct to muscle force production.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering
Advances in Robot Control
Hogan, Neville. “Force Control with A Muscle-Activated Endoskeleton.” Advances in Robot Control. Ed. Sadao Kawamura & Mikhail Svinin. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 201–216. Web. 13 Apr. 2012.
Final published version