Complete classification of one-dimensional gapped quantum phases in interacting spin systems
Author(s)Chen, Xie; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Wen, Xiao-Gang
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Quantum phases with different orders exist with or without breaking the symmetry of the system. Recently, a classification of gapped quantum phases which do not break time reversal, parity, or on-site unitary symmetry has been given for 1D spin systems by X. Chen, Z.-C. Gu and X.-G. Wen Phys. Rev. B 83 035107 (2011). It was found that such symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases are labeled by the projective representations of the symmetry group which can be viewed as a symmetry fractionalization. In this paper, we extend the classification of 1D gapped phases by considering SPT phases with combined time reversal, parity, and/or on-site unitary symmetries and also the possibility of symmetry breaking. We clarify how symmetry fractionalizes with combined symmetries and also how symmetry fractionalization coexists with symmetry breaking. In this way, we obtain a complete classification of gapped quantum phases in 1D spin systems. We find that in general, symmetry fractionalization, symmetry breaking, and long-range entanglement (present in 2 or higher dimensions) represent three main mechanisms to generate a very rich set of gapped quantum phases. As an application of our classification, we study the possible SPT phases in 1D fermionic systems, which can be mapped to spin systems by Jordan-Wigner transformation.
DepartmentKavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Physics
Physical Review B
American Physical Society
Chen, Xie, Zheng-Cheng Gu, and Xiao-Gang Wen. “Complete Classification of One-dimensional Gapped Quantum Phases in Interacting Spin Systems.” Physical Review B 84.23 (2011): [14 pages] Web. ©2011 American Physical Society.
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