## Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14], C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18]

##### Author(s)

Ivy, Diane J.; Rigby, Matthew; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, Ronald G.
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Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10]), dodecafluoropentane (C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12]), tetradecafluorohexane (C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14]), hexadecafluoroheptane (C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16]) and octadecafluorooctane (C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18]). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10] and C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], and in the 1990s for C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14], C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18]. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14] and C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16], and inventories of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12] and C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14] are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10] and over three orders of magnitude larger for C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12] (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12] at 9.6 kg yr[superscript −1], as compared to 67±53 t yr[superscript −1] as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14] largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18], thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18]. The reported inventories for C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12] and C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14] to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18], and estimate their radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs). We find that C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18]'s radiative efficiency is similar to trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride's (SF[subscript 5]F[subscript 3]) at 0.57 W m[superscript −2] ppb[superscript −1], which is the highest radiative efficiency of any measured atmospheric species. Using the 100-yr time horizon GWPs, the total radiative impact of the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons emissions are also estimated; we find the high molecular weight PFCs peak contribution was in 1997 at 24 000 Gg of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) equivalents and has decreased by a factor of three to 7300 Gg of CO[subscript 2] equivalents in 2010. This 2010 cumulative emission rate for the high molecular weight PFCs is comparable to: 0.02% of the total CO2 emissions, 0.81% of the total hydrofluorocarbon emissions, or 1.07% of the total chlorofluorocarbon emissions projected for 2010 (Velders et al., 2009). In terms of the total PFC emission budget, including the lower molecular weight PFCs, the high molecular weight PFCs peak contribution was also in 1997 at 15.4% and was 6% of the total PFC emissions in CO[subscript 2] equivalents in 2009.

##### Date issued

2012-08##### Department

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Center for Global Change Science; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences##### Journal

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

##### Publisher

Copernicus GmbH

##### Citation

Ivy, D. J. et al. “Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14], C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18].” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 12.16 (2012): 7635–7645.

Version: Final published version

##### ISSN

1680-7324

1680-7316