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dc.contributor.authorSchechtner, Katja
dc.contributor.authorSalesses, Mark Philip
dc.contributor.authorHidalgo, Cesar A.
dc.date.accessioned2013-09-30T13:36:30Z
dc.date.available2013-09-30T13:36:30Z
dc.date.issued2013-07
dc.date.submitted2012-11
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/81230
dc.description.abstractA traveler visiting Rio, Manila or Caracas does not need a report to learn that these cities are unequal; she can see it directly from the taxicab window. This is because in most cities inequality is conspicuous, but also, because cities express different forms of inequality that are evident to casual observers. Cities are highly heterogeneous and often unequal with respect to the income of their residents, but also with respect to the cleanliness of their neighborhoods, the beauty of their architecture, and the liveliness of their streets, among many other evaluative dimensions. Until now, however, our ability to understand the effect of a city's built environment on social and economic outcomes has been limited by the lack of quantitative data on urban perception. Here, we build on the intuition that inequality is partly conspicuous to create quantitative measure of a city's contrasts. Using thousands of geo-tagged images, we measure the perception of safety, class and uniqueness; in the cities of Boston and New York in the United States, and Linz and Salzburg in Austria, finding that the range of perceptions elicited by the images of New York and Boston is larger than the range of perceptions elicited by images from Linz and Salzburg. We interpret this as evidence that the cityscapes of Boston and New York are more contrasting, or unequal, than those of Linz and Salzburg. Finally, we validate our measures by exploring the connection between them and homicides, finding a significant correlation between the perceptions of safety and class and the number of homicides in a NYC zip code, after controlling for the effects of income, population, area and age. Our results show that online images can be used to create reproducible quantitative measures of urban perception and characterize the inequality of different cities.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMIT Media Lab Consortiumen_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068400en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attributionen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/en_US
dc.sourcePLoSen_US
dc.titleThe Collaborative Image of The City: Mapping the Inequality of Urban Perceptionen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationSalesses, Philip, Katja Schechtner, and Cesar A. Hidalgo. “The Collaborative Image of The City: Mapping the Inequality of Urban Perception.” Edited by Alain Barrat. PLoS ONE 8, no. 7 (July 24, 2013): e68400.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Engineering Systems Divisionen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Media Laboratoryen_US
dc.contributor.departmentProgram in Media Arts and Sciences (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)en_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorSalesses, Mark Philipen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorSchechtner, Katjaen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorHidalgo, Cesar A.en_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dspace.orderedauthorsSalesses, Philip; Schechtner, Katja; Hidalgo, Cesar A.en_US
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6031-5982
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5891-1363
mit.licensePUBLISHER_CCen_US
mit.metadata.statusComplete


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