Insight into the Mechanism of Inactivation of Ribonucleotide Reductase by Gemcitabine 5′-Diphosphate in the Presence or Absence of Reductant
Author(s)Artin, Erin; Wang, Jun; Lohman, Gregory J. S.; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Yu, Guixue; Bar, Galit; Stubbe, JoAnne; Griffin, Robert Guy; ... Show more Show less
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Gemcitabine 5′-diphosphate (F[subscript 2]CDP) is a potent inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), enzymes that convert nucleotides (NDPs) to deoxynucleotides and are essential for DNA replication and repair. The Escherichia coli RNR, an α2β2 complex, when incubated with 1 equiv of F[subscript 2]CDP catalyzes the release of two fluorides and cytosine concomitant with enzyme inactivation. In the presence of reductant (thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase/NADPH or DTT), the enzyme inactivation results from its covalent labeling of α with the sugar of F[subscript 2]CDP (one label/α2β2). SDS-PAGE analysis of the inactivated RNR without boiling of the sample reveals that α migrates as an 87 and 110 kDa protein in a ratio of 0.6:0.4. When the reductant is omitted, RNR is inactivated by loss of the essential tyrosyl radical and formation of a new radical. Inactivation studies with C225S-α in the presence or absence of reductants, reveal it behaves like wt-RNR in the absence of reductant. Inactivated C225S-α migrates as an 87 kDa protein and is not covalently modified. C225 is one of the cysteines in RNR’s active site that supplies reducing equivalents to make dNDPs. To identify the new radical formed, [1′-[superscript 2]H]-F[subscript 2]CDP was studied with wt- and C225S-RNR by 9 and 140 GHz EPR spectroscopy. These studies revealed that the new radical is a nucleotide derived with g values of g[subscript x] 2.00738, g[subscript y] 2.00592, and g[subscript z] 2.00230 and with altered hyperfine interactions (apparent triplet collapsed to a doublet) relative to [1′-[superscript 1]H]-F[subscript 2]CDP. The EPR features are very similar to those we recently reported for the nucleotide radical generated with CDP and E441Q-RNR.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Biology; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Artin, Erin, Jun Wang, Gregory J. S. Lohman, Kenichi Yokoyama, Guixue Yu, Robert G. Griffin, Galit Bar, and JoAnne Stubbe. “Insight into the Mechanism of Inactivation of Ribonucleotide Reductase by Gemcitabine 5′-Diphosphate in the Presence or Absence of Reductant.” Biochemistry 48, no. 49 (December 15, 2009): 11622-11629.
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