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dc.contributor.authorGertler, Frank
dc.contributor.authorRobinson, Brian D.
dc.contributor.authorSica, Gabriel L.
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Yi-Fang
dc.contributor.authorRohan, Thomas E.
dc.contributor.authorCondeelis, John S.
dc.contributor.authorJones, Joan G.
dc.date.accessioned2014-01-31T16:02:43Z
dc.date.available2014-01-31T16:02:43Z
dc.date.issued2009-03
dc.date.submitted2008-12
dc.identifier.issn1078-0432
dc.identifier.issn1557-3265
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/84614
dc.description.abstractPurpose: Multiphoton-based intravital imaging has shown that invasive carcinoma cells in mouse and rat mammary tumors intravasate when associated with perivascular macrophages, identifying a potential tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM). We define TMEM as the tripartite arrangement of an invasive carcinoma cell, a macrophage, and an endothelial cell. The aim of this study was to determine if TMEM density in human breast carcinoma samples predicts the development of systemic, hematogenous metastases. Experimental Design: A case-control study of 30 patients who developed metastatic breast cancer and 30 patients without metastatic disease was done. Cases were matched to controls based on currently used prognostic criteria. Paraffin-embedded primary breast cancer samples were stained using a triple immunohistochemical method allowing simultaneous identification of carcinoma cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Two pathologists, blinded to outcome, evaluated the number of TMEM per 20 high-power fields. Results: No association was seen between TMEM density and tumor size or grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, or hormone receptor status. TMEM density was greater in the group of patients who developed systemic metastases compared with the patients with only localized breast cancer (median, 105 versus 50, respectively; P = 0.00006). For every 10-unit increase in TMEM density, the odds ratio for systemic metastasis was 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4). Conclusions: TMEM density predicted the development of systemic, hematogenous metastases. The ability of TMEM to predict distant metastasis was independent of lymph node status and other currently used prognosticators. Quantitation of TMEM may be a useful new prognostic marker for breast cancer patients.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant GM58801)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Cancer Institute (U.S.). Integrative Cancer Biology Program (Grant 1-U54-CA112967)en_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Association for Cancer Researchen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-08-2179en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0en_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/en_US
dc.sourcePMCen_US
dc.titleTumor Microenvironment of Metastasis in Human Breast Carcinoma: A Potential Prognostic Marker Linked to Hematogenous Disseminationen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationRobinson, B. D., G. L. Sica, Y.-F. Liu, T. E. Rohan, F. B. Gertler, J. S. Condeelis, and J. G. Jones. “Tumor Microenvironment of Metastasis in Human Breast Carcinoma: A Potential Prognostic Marker Linked to Hematogenous Dissemination.” Clinical Cancer Research 15, no. 7 (March 10, 2009): 2433-2441.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Biologyen_US
dc.contributor.departmentKoch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MITen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorGertler, Franken_US
dc.relation.journalClinical Cancer Researchen_US
dc.eprint.versionAuthor's final manuscripten_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dspace.orderedauthorsRobinson, B. D.; Sica, G. L.; Liu, Y.-F.; Rohan, T. E.; Gertler, F. B.; Condeelis, J. S.; Jones, J. G.en_US
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3214-4554
mit.licenseOPEN_ACCESS_POLICYen_US


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