THE MASS OF KOI-94d AND A RELATION FOR PLANET RADIUS, MASS, AND INCIDENT FLUX
Author(s)Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Rowe, Jason F.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Miller, Neil; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Fischer, Debra A.; Adams, Elisabeth Rose; Dupree, Andrea K.; Howell, Steve B.; Kolbl, Rea; Johnson, John Asher; Horch, Elliott P.; Everett, Mark E.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Seager, Sara; ... Show more Show less
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We measure the mass of a modestly irradiated giant planet, KOI-94d. We wish to determine whether this planet, which is in a 22 day orbit and receives 2700 times as much incident flux as Jupiter, is as dense as Jupiter or rarefied like inflated hot Jupiters. KOI-94 also hosts at least three smaller transiting planets, all of which were detected by the Kepler mission. With 26 radial velocities of KOI-94 from the W. M. Keck Observatory and a simultaneous fit to the Kepler light curve, we measure the mass of the giant planet and determine that it is not inflated. Support for the planetary interpretation of the other three candidates comes from gravitational interactions through transit timing variations, the statistical robustness of multi-planet systems against false positives, and several lines of evidence that no other star resides within the photometric aperture. We report the properties of KOI-94b (M [subscript P] = 10.5 ± 4.6 M [subscript ⊕], R [subscript P] = 1.71 ± 0.16 R [subscript ⊕], P = 3.74 days), KOI-94c (M [subscript P] = 15.6 [+5.7 over -15.6] M subscript ⊕], R [subscript P] = 4.32 ± 0.41 R [subscript ⊕], P = 10.4 days), KOI-94d (M [subscript P] = 106 ± 11 M [subscript ⊕], R [subscript P] = 11.27 ± 1.06 R [subscript ⊕], P = 22.3 days), and KOI-94e (M [subscript P] = 35[+18 over -28] M [subscript ⊕], R [subscript P] = 6.56 ± 0.62 R [subscript ⊕], P = 54.3 days). The radial velocity analyses of KOI-94b and KOI-94e offer marginal (>2σ) mass detections, whereas the observations of KOI-94c offer only an upper limit to its mass. Using the KOI-94 system and other planets with published values for both mass and radius (138 exoplanets total, including 35 with M [subscript P] < 150 M [subscript ⊕]), we establish two fundamental planes for exoplanets that relate their mass, incident flux, and radius from a few Earth masses up to 13 Jupiter masses: (R [subscript P]/R [subscript ⊕]) = 1.78(M [subscript P]/M [subscript ⊕])[superscript 0.53](F/erg s[superscript –1] cm[superscript –2])[superscript –0.03] for M [subscript P] < 150 M [subscript ⊕], and R [subscript P]/R [subscript ⊕] = 2.45(M [subscript P]/M [subscript ⊕])[superscript –0.039](F/erg s[superscript –1] cm[superscript –2])[superscript 0.094] for M [subscript P] > 150 M [subscript ⊕]. These equations can be used to predict the radius or mass of a planet.
Author Manuscript March 9, 2013
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences
The Astrophysical Journal
Weiss, Lauren M., Geoffrey W. Marcy, Jason F. Rowe, Andrew W. Howard, Howard Isaacson, Jonathan J. Fortney, Neil Miller, et al. “THE MASS OF KOI-94d AND A RELATION FOR PLANET RADIUS, MASS, AND INCIDENT FLUX.” The Astrophysical Journal 768, no. 1 (May 1, 2013): 14.
Author's final manuscript