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dc.contributor.authorGong, Zheng
dc.contributor.authorTran, Duong
dc.contributor.authorYi, Dong Hoon
dc.contributor.authorWu, Fan
dc.contributor.authorZorn, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorRatilal, Purnima
dc.contributor.authorJain, Ankita Deepak
dc.contributor.authorMakris, Nicholas
dc.date.accessioned2014-10-20T13:39:39Z
dc.date.available2014-10-20T13:39:39Z
dc.date.issued2014-10
dc.date.submitted2012-12
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/90982
dc.description.abstractWe show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i) were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii) their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1) highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2) songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a) no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b) a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a) the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b) the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c) the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98–100% false-positive rate and lacks any true-positive confirmation.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Oceanographic Partnership Program (U.S.)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipCensus of Marine Life (Program)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipUnited States. Office of Naval Researchen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipAlfred P. Sloan Foundationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPresidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineersen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNortheastern Universityen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipMassachusetts Institute of Technologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104733en_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attributionen_US
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en_US
dc.sourcePublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.titleEcosystem Scale Acoustic Sensing Reveals Humpback Whale Behavior Synchronous with Herring Spawning Processes and Re-Evaluation Finds No Effect of Sonar on Humpback Song Occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in Fall 2006en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationGong, Zheng, Ankita D. Jain, Duong Tran, Dong Hoon Yi, Fan Wu, Alexander Zorn, Purnima Ratilal, and Nicholas C. Makris. “Ecosystem Scale Acoustic Sensing Reveals Humpback Whale Behavior Synchronous with Herring Spawning Processes and Re-Evaluation Finds No Effect of Sonar on Humpback Song Occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in Fall 2006.” Edited by Z. Daniel Deng. PLoS ONE 9, no. 10 (October 7, 2014): e104733.en_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorJain, Ankita Deepaken_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorYi, Dong Hoonen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorMakris, Nicholasen_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dspace.orderedauthorsGong, Zheng; Jain, Ankita D.; Tran, Duong; Yi, Dong Hoon; Wu, Fan; Zorn, Alexander; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C.en_US
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0261-4482
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4369-296X
mit.licensePUBLISHER_CCen_US


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