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dc.contributor.authorLan, Tian
dc.contributor.authorWen, Xiao-Gang
dc.contributor.authorWang, Juven
dc.date.accessioned2015-02-19T19:08:48Z
dc.date.available2015-02-19T19:08:48Z
dc.date.issued2015-02
dc.date.submitted2014-10
dc.identifier.issn0031-9007
dc.identifier.issn1079-7114
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/94651
dc.description.abstractGapped domain walls, as topological line defects between (2+1)D topologically ordered states, are examined. We provide simple criteria to determine the existence of gapped domain walls, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. Our criteria also determine which (2+1)D topological orders must have gapless edge modes, namely, which (1+1)D global gravitational anomalies ensure gaplessness. Furthermore, we introduce a new mathematical object, the tunneling matrix W, whose entries are the fusion-space dimensions W[subscript ia], to label different types of gapped domain walls. By studying many examples, we find evidence that the tunneling matrices are powerful quantities to classify different types of gapped domain walls. Since a gapped boundary is a gapped domain wall between a bulk topological order and the vacuum, regarded as the trivial topological order, our theory of gapped domain walls inclusively contains the theory of gapped boundaries. In addition, we derive a topological ground state degeneracy formula, applied to arbitrary orientable spatial 2-manifolds with gapped domain walls, including closed 2-manifolds and open 2-manifolds with gapped boundaries.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (Grant DMR-1005541)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (Grant NSFC 11074140)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipNational Science Foundation (U.S.) (Grant NSFC 11274192)en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipTempleton Foundationen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipBMO Financial Groupen_US
dc.description.sponsorshipOntario. Ministry of Research and Innovationen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Physical Societyen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.076402en_US
dc.rightsArticle is made available in accordance with the publisher's policy and may be subject to US copyright law. Please refer to the publisher's site for terms of use.en_US
dc.sourceAmerican Physical Societyen_US
dc.titleGapped Domain Walls, Gapped Boundaries, and Topological Degeneracyen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.citationLan, Tian, Juven C. Wang, and Xiao-Gang Wen. “Gapped Domain Walls, Gapped Boundaries, and Topological Degeneracy.” Physical Review Letters 114.7 (2015). © 2015 American Physical Societyen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Physicsen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorWang, Juvenen_US
dc.contributor.mitauthorWen, Xiao-Gangen_US
dc.relation.journalPhysical Review Lettersen_US
dc.eprint.versionFinal published versionen_US
dc.type.urihttp://purl.org/eprint/type/JournalArticleen_US
eprint.statushttp://purl.org/eprint/status/PeerRevieweden_US
dc.date.updated2015-02-18T23:00:02Z
dc.language.rfc3066en
dc.rights.holderAmerican Physical Society
dspace.orderedauthorsLan, Tian; Wang, Juven C.; Wen, Xiao-Gangen_US
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5742-3395
dc.identifier.orcidhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5874-581X
mit.licensePUBLISHER_POLICYen_US


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