Mechanical Characterization and Shape Optimization of Fascicle-Like 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissues Contracted with Electrical and Optical Stimuli
Author(s)Neal, Devin M.; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Chan, Vincent; Bashir, Rashid; Asada, Harry
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Here we present a quantitative approach to constructing effective 3D muscle tissues through shape optimization and load impedance matching with electrical and optical stimulation. We have constructed long, thin, fascicle-like skeletal muscle tissue and optimized their form factor through mechanical characterization. A new apparatus was designed and built which allowed us to measure force-displacement characteristics with diverse load stiffnesses. We have found that a) there is an optimal form factor that maximizes the muscle stress, b) the energy transmitted to the load can be maximized with matched load stiffness, and c) optical stimulation using channelrhodopsin2 in the muscle tissue can generate twitch force as large as its electrical counterpart for well developed muscle tissue. Using our tissue construct method we found an optimal initial diameter of 500 microns outperformed tissues using 250 microns by more than 60% and tissues using 760 microns by 105%. Using an optimal load stiffness, our tissues have generated 12 pJ of energy at a peak generated stress of 1.28 kPa. Additionally, the difference in optically stimulated twitch performance vs. electrically stimulated is a function of how well the overall tissue performs, with average or better performing strips having less than 10% difference. The unique mechanical characterization method used is generalizable to diverse load conditions and will be used to match load impedance to muscle tissue impedance for a wide variety of applications.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering
Tissue Engineering Part A
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Neal, Devin M., Mahmut Selman Sakar, Vincent Chan, Rashid Bashir, and H. Harry Asada. “Mechanical Characterization and Shape Optimization of Fascicle-Like 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissues Contracted with Electrical and Optical Stimuli.” Tissue Engineering Part A (February 25, 2015): 150225085941005.
Final published version