Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems
Author(s)Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason Scott; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin Roy; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Ram, Rajeev J.; Popovic, Milos A.; Atabaki, Amir H.; Leu, Jonathan Chung; Stojanovic, Vladimir; ... Show more Show less
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We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a “More-than- Moore” technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.
DepartmentMassachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Research Laboratory of Electronics
Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering
Popovic, Milos A., Mark T. Wade, Jason S. Orcutt, Jeffrey M. Shainline, Chen Sun, Michael Georgas, Benjamin Moss, et al. “Monolithic Silicon Photonics in a Sub-100nm SOI CMOS Microprocessor Foundry: Progress from Devices to Systems.” Edited by Graham T. Reed and Michael R. Watts. Silicon Photonics X (April 3, 2015). © 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
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