Effect of Depth and Width on Local Minima in Deep Learning
Author(s)Kawaguchi, Kenji; Huang, Jiaoyang; Kaelbling, Leslie Pack
MetadataShow full item record
© 2019 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For nonconvex optimization in machine learning, this article proves that every local minimum achieves the globally optimal value of the perturbable gradient basis model at any differentiable point. As a result, nonconvex machine learning is theoretically as supported as convex machine learning with a handcrafted basis in terms of the loss at differentiable local minima, except in the case when a preference is given to the handcrafted basis over the perturbable gradient basis. The proofs of these results are derived under mild assumptions. Accordingly, the proven results are directly applicable to many machine learning models, including practical deep neural networks, without any modification of practical methods. Furthermore, as special cases of our general results, this article improves or complements several state-of-the-art theoretical results on deep neural networks, deep residual networks, and overparameterized deep neural networks with a unified proof technique and novel geometric insights. A special case of our results also contributes to the theoretical foundation of representation learning.
MIT Press - Journals